Artak Ayunts & Talha Köse

Contributor from Hrant Dink Foundation

Burcu Becermen

1st edition - March 2019
63 Pages

As of 2019, there is no diplomatic relations between Armenia and Turkey and the land border remains closed. In 2009, the Zurich Protocols were signed between the two neighbouring countries, which outlined the steps for normalisation without preconditions. Nonetheless, the protocols were not ratified by either of the parliaments, and after a long period of lack of progress, the protocols were declared null and void by Armenia in March 2018. Despite the failure of normalisation at the political level, there has been a vibrant civil society action promoting people-to-people contacts and confidence-building attempts between the two neighbouring countries.

Building on this civil society momentum, in 2016, the Hrant Dink Foundation convened the Armenia-Turkey Expert Dialogue Group. A joint initiative of experts from both countries with backgrounds in politics, diplomacy, academia and civil society, the Dialogue Group is committed to Turkey-Armenia relations at different levels and aims to develop confidence building measures (CBMs) towards normalisation of relations between two neighbours.

The Group members, supported by two local Rapporteurs and an External Facilitator, held meetings in Istanbul, Yerevan and Ankara and identified specific thematic fields and developed tangible CBMs in fields including migration, education, consular affairs, trade and business relations.

This paper has been written by two Rapporteurs from both countries Talha Köse and Artak Ayunts who are experts in the field of conflict resolution and by the contribution of Burcu Becermen from the Hrant Dink Foundation. The paper provides a brief overview of the current state and obstacles in these fields, analyses institutional frameworks and opportunities and proposes a set of recommendations in the field.

Artak Ayunts
Artak Ayunts holds MA degree in Sociology from Yerevan State University, MA degree in Conflict Resolution from Bradford University, Peace Studies Department, United Kingdom. He completed his PhD studies at Yerevan State University in 2004. Dr. Ayunts is an author of more than twenty academic publications and research articles. He was DAAD Fellow at Peace Research Institute Frankfurt in 2012 and Visiting Scholar at the Institute for the Study of Human Rights, Columbia University in 2013. Artak Ayunts has more than ten years of experience in peace research and conflict studies in the South Caucasus and Central Asia. He has also built vast experience in research design conducting qualitative and quantitative studies in the fields of conflict resolution, peace-building, transition democracies and discourse analysis. During the last several years Dr. Ayunts has been engaged with various international and local non-for profit organisations and educational institutions, in particular International Alert, Caucasus Research Resource Center-Armenia, Yerevan State University and UNDP. Currently he is working as the Programme Advisor at Peaceful Change Initiative.
Talha Köse
Talha Köse is the chair and an Associate Professor of Political Science at Ibn Haldun University. Köse has a BA degree from Political Science and International Relations Department of Boğaziçi University (2000) and MA degree from Conflict Analysis and Resolution Program of Sabancı University (2002). Dr. Köse completed his doctoral studies at the School of Conflict Analysis and Resolution (SCAR)-George Mason University in January 2010. His doctoral research focuses on the transformation of Alevi identity within the post-1980 milieu of Turkey. Before joining Ibn Haldun University Köse worked as an Assistant Professor and Chair of Political Science and International Relations department at Istanbul Şehir University. Köse worked as a visiting professor at George Mason University and University Maastricht (Netherlands). Dr. Köse’s research focuses on ethnic, sectarian and religions conflicts and political violence in the Middle East and Conflict Resolution approaches in foreign policy. Köse is an expert in peace processes, Alevi identity and non-coercive approaches in Turkish Foreign Policy. Köse edited and published 3 books in Turkish and published more than 20 academic articles and book chapters both in English and Turkish. His academic articles appeared in journals like Foreign Policy Analysis, Party Politics, Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, Middle Eastern Studies, Turkish Studies, Insight Turkey, Perceptions, International Relations. Köse worked as a foreign policy and security analyst at the SETA Foundation, which is the leading think tank in Turkey. Köse also worked as the research director of the Washington DC branch of the SETA Foundation. Köse’s TV comments on foreign policy and regional security and op-eds appear frequently in Turkish and International media.
Report name
Armenia and Turkey an Overview of Relations and Prospects for Normalisation
150 mm
210 mm
1st edition - March 2019
Artak Ayunts & Talha Köse
Contributor from HDF
Burcu Becermen
Sera Dink
Graphics application
Aren Arda Kaya
Printed in
Mas Matbaacılık
This publication has been printed thanks to the financial support of the Embassy of Canada, as part of the Armenia-Turkey Expert Dialogue Group’s mandate and work towards preparing a list of confidence-building measures aiming at the normalisation of relations between the two neighbours.
  • Executive Summary
  • Introduction
  • Armenia and Turkey in the Absence of Diplomatic Relations: Domestic and Regional Factors at Play between 2016 and 2018
  • Confidence-Building Measures Proposed by the Dialogue Group
  • Consular Services
  • Armenian-Citizen Migrants in Turkey
  • Trade, Business and Transportation
  • Education
  • Health Services
  • Culture
  • Tourism
  • Armenia-Turkey Official Relations Chronology since 1991